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Namus The cultural features which lead to honor killings are complex. Honor killings involve violence and fear as a tool of maintaining control. Honor killings are argued to have their origins among nomadic peoples and herdsmen: As a result, inspiring fear, using aggression, and cultivating a reputation for violent revenge in order to protect property is preferable to other behaviors.

In societies where there is a weak rule of law, people must build fierce reputations. As Amnesty International statement notes: The regime of honour is unforgiving: The way through which women in honor-based societies are considered to bring dishonor to men is often through their sexual behavior. Indeed, violence related to female sexual expression has been documented since Ancient Rome, when the pater familias had the right to kill an unmarried sexually active daughter or an adulterous wife.

In medieval Europe, early Jewish law mandated stoning for an adulterous wife and her partner. Sharif Kanaana, professor of anthropology at Birzeit University , says that honor killing is: A complicated issue that cuts deep into the history of Islamic society. What the men of the family, clan, or tribe seek control of in a patrilineal society is reproductive power.

Women for the tribe were considered a factory for making men. The honour killing is not a means to control sexual power or behavior. It also comments that the practice is not related to a feudal societal structure, "there are also perpetrators who are well-educated university graduates. Of all those surveyed, 60 percent are either high school or university graduates or at the very least, literate. Women in largely patriarchal cultures who have gained economic independence from their families go against their male-dominated culture.

Some researchers argue that the shift towards greater responsibility for women and less for their fathers may cause their male family members to act in oppressive and sometimes violent manners in order to regain authority. For families who trace their ancestry back to the Middle East or South Asia, honor killings have targeted women for wearing clothes that are considered Western, having a boyfriend, or refusing to accept an arranged marriage [32] Fareena Alam , editor of a Muslim magazine, writes that honor killings which arise in Western cultures such as Britain are a tactic for immigrant families to cope with the alienating consequences of urbanization.

Alam argues that immigrants remain close to the home culture and their relatives because it provides a safety net. Forced marriage Refusal of an arranged marriage is often a cause of an honor killing. The family which has prearranged the marriage risks disgrace if the marriage does not proceed. Victim blaming In many cultures, victims of rape face severe violence, including honor killings, from their families and relatives.

Violence against LGBT people There is evidence that homosexuality can also be perceived as grounds for honor killing by relatives. It is not only same-sex sexual acts that trigger violence behaviors that are regarded as inappropriate gender expression e. Views on women[ edit ] Honor killings are often a result of strongly misogynistic views towards women, and the position of women in society. In these traditionally male-dominated societies women are dependent first on their father and then on their husband, whom they are expected to obey.

Women are viewed as property and not as individuals with their own agency. As such, they must submit to male authority figures in the family failure to do so can result in extreme violence as punishment. Violence is seen as a way of ensuring compliance and preventing rebellion. The owner of the property has the right to decide its fate.

The concept of ownership has turned women into a commodity which can be exchanged, bought and sold". The most frequently quoted figure published by the United Nations in is an estimate of 5, killings worldwide each year, most of them in Islamic regions of South Asia, North Africa and the Middle East. Acts by family members which may be considered inappropriate are seen as bringing shame to the family in the eyes of the community.

Such acts often include female behaviors that are related to sex outside marriage or way of dressing, but may also include male homosexuality like the emo killings in Iraq. The family loses face in the community, and may be shunned by relatives. The only way the shame can be erased is through a killing. On 7 November , Law no. Forced suicide A forced suicide may be a substitute for an honor killing. In this case, the family members do not directly kill the victim themselves, but force him or her to commit suicide, in order to avoid punishment.

Such suicides are reported to be common in southeastern Turkey. This being an alternative to an honor killing, the woman or girl has no choice but to accept the marriage. The family of the man is expected to cooperate and provide a groom for the woman. Brown says that "questions about honor killings have regularly found their way into the inboxes of muftis like Yusuf Qaradawi or the late Lebanese Shiite scholar Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah. Their responses reflect a rare consensus.

Arizona , has noted that honor killings were encouraged in ancient Rome , where male family members who did not take action against the female adulterers in their families were "actively persecuted".

The Roman law of pater familias gave complete control to the men of the family over both their children and wives. Under these laws, the lives of children and wives were at the discretion of the men in their families. Ancient Roman Law also justified honor killings by stating that women who were found guilty of adultery could be killed by their husbands. During the Qing dynasty in China , fathers and husbands had the right to kill daughters who were deemed to have dishonored the family.

The report of the Special Rapporteur The Kurdish woman from Turkey was murdered at age of 23 by her brothers in an honor killing.

The issue of honor killings has risen to prominence in Europe in recent years, prompting the need to address the occurrence of honor killings. The European Parliamentary Assembly noted this in their Resolution which noted the dire need to address honor crimes.

The resolution stated that: It mainly affects women, who are its most frequent victims, both in Europe and the rest of the world, especially in patriarchal and fundamentalist communities and societies. The majority of honor killings are committed by first generation immigrants against second and third generation to prevent them from becoming Westernized. Gjakmarrja Honor based violence has a long tradition in Albania , and although it is much rarer today than it was in the past, it still exists.

Nderi is one of the four pillars on which the Kanun is based. Honor crimes happen especially in northern Albania. In Albania and in other parts of the Balkans the phenomenon of blood feuds between males was more common historically than honor killings of females; but honor based violence against women and girls also has a tradition. Honor killing of Sadia Sheikh In , Belgium held its first honor killing trial, in which four Pakistani family members were found guilty of killing their daughter and sibling, Sadia Sheikh.

Honor killing of Ghazala Khan Ghazala Khan was shot and killed in Denmark in September , by her brother, after she had married against the will of the family. She was of Pakistani origin. Sentences considered harsh by Danish standards were handed out to all nine accused members of her family. The Napoleonic Code of , established under Napoleon Bonaparte , is one of the origins of the legal leniency with regard to adultery-related killings in a variety of legal systems in several countries around the world.

Under this code, a man who killed his wife after she had been caught in the act of adultery could not be charged with premeditated murder although he could be charged with other lesser offenses. This defense was available only for a husband, not for a wife.

The Napoleonic Code has been very influential, and many countries, inspired by it, provided for lesser penalties or even acquittal for such crimes. This can be seen in the criminal codes of many former French colonies. The group tries to protect Muslim girls and women from oppressive families.

Indeed, until , the Criminal Code provided for mitigating circumstances for such killings; until the law read: He who causes the death of a spouse, daughter, or sister upon discovering her in illegitimate carnal relations and in the heat of passion caused by the offence to his honour or that of his family will be sentenced to three to seven years. The same sentence shall apply to whom, in the above circumstances, causes the death of the person involved in illegitimate carnal relations with his spouse, daughter, or sister.

She had refused an arranged marriage, and was living with her Italian boyfriend.


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